I. Cheap Street Drugs
An editorial in the May 18, 2015 edition of Nature calls for the regulation of GMO yeast that can be used to cheaply synthesize common opiates such as morphine and codeine. The editorial is in response to recent research that reported the development of a pathway for converting tyrosine into reticuline, a necessary step toward production of illicit substances.
In principle, anyone with access to the yeast strain and basic skills in fermentation would be able to grow morphine-producing yeast using a home-brew kit for beer-making. If the modified yeast strain produced 10 grams of morphine, users would need to drink only 1–2 millilitres of the liquid to obtain a standard prescribed dose. — Ibid. (Emphasis added.)